Things that Break One’s Fast (QAZA & KAFFARAH)

Things That Break One’s FAST

Things that break one’s fast are of two kinds. Some make only Qaza necessary, whilst others make both Qaza and Kaffaarah compulsory.

* QAZA: To keep one fast in place of the one that breaks, or is broken intentionally.
* KAFFARAH:To keep one fast after another for sixty days continuously.

However, if a person is unable to keep these 60 Rozas, for some valid reason, e.g. continuous sickness, then one has the option of choosing from one of the following four:

  1. Feed sixty poor people to their fill for two meals, or
  2. Feed one poor person two meals a day, for sixty days; or
  3. Give 60 poor persons 3 1/2 lbs (approx. 1.6kg) of wheat or its value in cash or food grains; or
  4. Give to one poor person not less than 3 1/2 lbs. of wheat, rice or food grains, etc. to its value of cash for sixty days.

Things That Break One’s Fast But Make Only Qaza Wajib:

1. Anything put by force into the mouth of fasting person.
2. Water goes down the throat whilst gargling, conscious of one’s fasting.
3. To Vomit mouthful intentionally or to return vomit down the throat.
4. Swallowing intentionally a pebble, piece of paper or any item that is not used as food or medicine.
5. Swallowing something edible, equal to or bigger than a grain of gram which was stuck between the teeth. However if it is first taken out of the mouth and swallowed it will break the fast whether it is smaller or bigger than that size of a gram.
6. Putting oil into the ear.
7. Inhaling snuff into the nostrils.
8. Swallowing the blood from the gums if the color of the blood is more that the fast is broken, to eat and drink again.
9. To eat and drink forgetting that one is fasting and thereafter thinking that the fast is broken, to eat and drink again.
10. To eat and drink after Subha Sadiq or to break the fast before sunset due to a cloudy sky or a faulty watch, etc., and then realizing one’s fault.

N.B: Any fast other than a Ramadan one, whether broken intentionally or with a good and valid reason, makes only Qaza Wajib. There is no Kaffarah for breaking any fast besides that of Ramadan.

Things That Make Both Qaza & Kaffarah Wajib

1. Eating, drinking or breaking the fast in any other manner, e.g., smoking etc., without a valid reason, will make both Qaza and Kaffarah necessary.
2. Applying Surma into eye or rubbing oil on the head and then, thinking that the fast is broken, to eat and drink intentionally.
3. To drink any kind of medicine intentionally.

(Note: Injection is permitted with condition ask Scholars for more details.)

Things That Do Not Break The Fast

1. To eat or drink something unintentionally
2. A mosquito, fly or any other object going down the throat unintentionally.
3. Water entering the ears.
4. Dust or dirt going down the throat.
5. Swallowing one’s own saliva.
6. Taking an injection.
7. Applying of Surma (kohl) into the eyes.
8. Taking a bath to keep cool.
9. Rubbing oil onto the body or hair.
10. To vomit unintentionally.
11. Applying itr or perfume. It is not permitted to inhale to smoke of Lobaan or Agar Batti whilst fasting. It is also not permitted to smoke cigarettes or inhale its smoke.
12. Brushing the teeth without tooth paste or powder. e.g., using a Miswaak, etc.
13. A dream which makes Ghusl Waajib (necessary) does not break the Rozah.

People Exempted From Fasting in RAMADAN

1. Sick people when their health is likely to be badly affected by fasting. They should make up the loss, a day for a day, when they recover after Ramadan.
2. A musafir, (one who is undertaking a journey of more than 77 kms and does not intend staying more than 14 days at his destination). However, it is better for him to fast in Ramadan than keep Qaza later, provided the journey is not a tiresome one.
3. If it is feared that hunger or thirst will lead to death, it is permitted to break one’s fast.
4. It is Wajib to keep Qaza of a Nafl fast that was broken before completing it.

Fidya for Fast (Compensation):

* A mosquito, fly or any other object going down the throat unintentionally
* A very old person who does not have the strength to fast or a very sickly or diseased person who has no hope of recovering after Ramadan, should given Fidya for each fast missed in Ramadan.
* The Fidya for a fast is similar to that of a missed Fardh or Wajib Salaat, i.e:
i) To give 3 1/2 lbs = approx. 1.6 kg of wheat OR .. 7 lbs = approx. 3.2kg of barley
ii) OR… the equivalent of the above in cash.

If, however an old or sick person gains strength or recovers after Ramadan, he must keep the missed number of fasts and whatever was given as Fidya will be a reward for him from Allah Ta’ala.

No one is allowed to fast for another (sick or fit) person.

N.B: Children should be encouraged to fast, but should not be forced to complete the fast up to sunset if they are unable to bear the hunger or thirst.