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The status of women in Islam

The status of women in Islam, is an issue that is pertinent in present times; both due to the divergence of cultural practices in the Muslim world from the Islamic perspective and the erroneous perception in the West, that Islam subjugates womenfolk.

A dispassionate study of the primary sources of Islam, along with an analysis of the position of women in societies where

Islam was implemented, actually proves that for women Islam is a special blessing.

Prior to Islam, write the authors of The Cultural Atlas of Islam, a woman was regarded by her parents as a threat to family honor and hence worthy of burial alive at infancy. As an adult, she was a sex object that could be bought, sold and inherited. From this position of inferiority and legal incapacity, Islam raised women to a position of influence and prestige in family and society.

The rights and responsibilities of women are equal to those of men but they are not necessarily identical. This difference is understandable because men and women are different, in their physiological and psychological make-up. With this distinction in mind, there is no room for a Muslim to imagine that women are inferior to men. Thus it is perhaps more apt to refer to the Islamic approach on gender relations, as one of equity rather than the commonly used word equality, which could be misunderstood to mean equality in every minute aspect of life, rather than overall equality.

The Spiritual Aspaect

The sacred text of the Glorious Quran and the history of early Muslims bear witness to the fact that women are considered as vital to life as men.

Islam refuted the idea that Eve tempted Adam to disobey God, and thus caused his downfall. The Quran says that they both disobeyed, and negates the idea that women are a source of evil.

In a world where women were no more than objects of sexual gratification for men, and at a time when the religious circles argued over whether women were human or not, possessing souls, Islam proclaimed:

O mankind! We created you from a single (pair) of a male and a female.  [Al-Quran 49:13]

O Mankind! Reverence your Guardian-Lord, Who created you from a single person, created of like nature his mate, from them scattered countless men and women. Fear Allah, through whom you demand your mutual rights and reverence the wombs (that bore you), for Allah ever watches over you.
[Al-Quran 4:1]

Men and women are of the same family, and as such have similar rights and duties, and their Lord promises them in the Glorious Quran:

Never will I waste the work of a worker among you, whether male or female, the one of you being from the other.
[Al-Quran 3:195]

Thus, in the Islamic tradition, a woman has an independent identity. She is a responsible being in her own right and carries the burden of her moral and spiritual obligations.

The SOocial Aspect

Women have as much right to education as men do. Almost fourteen centuries ago, Prophet Muhammad (p)1 declared that the pursuit of knowledge is incumbent on every Muslim, male and female. This declaration was very clear and was largely implemented by Muslims throughout history.

Islam elevated the position of women in society and treated them on an equal footing with men, and in some cases, as a mother for instance, clearly gave them precedence over men. Thus when a man asked Prophet Muhammad (p): Who is most entitled to be treated with the best companionship by me? the Prophet (p) replied, Your mother. The man asked, Who is next? The Prophet (p) said, Your mother. Again the man asked, Who is next? The Prophet (p) repeated, Your mother. The man asked for a fourth time, Who is next? The Prophet (p) then replied, Your father.2

On another occasion, when a man came to the Prophet (p), and expressed the desire to join a military expedition, the Prophet (p) asked him if he had a mother. When he replied that he had, the Prophet (p) advised him, Stay with her, for Paradise is at her feet.3

As daughters, women have a right to just and equitable treatment from their parents. The Prophet(p) gave glad tidings to those who did not insult their daughters or favored sons over daughters.4

A woman has the right to accept or reject marriage proposals, and her consent is a prerequisite to the validity of the marriage contract. A marriage is based on mutual peace, love and compassion. Dr. Jamal Badawi, a Canadian Islamic scholar, states in his book Gender Equity in Islam:

The husband is responsible for the maintenance, protection and overall leadership of the family within the framework of consultation and kindness. The mutuality and complementarity of husband and wife does not mean subservience by either party to the other. Prophet Muhammad (p) helped with household chores, although the responsibilities he bore and the issues he faced in the community were immense.

The responsibility of maintaining social and moral values lies on both men and women. Both must refrain from all deeds and gestures that might stir the passions of people other than their legitimate spouses or cause evil suspicion of their morality.

Women are entitled to freedom of expression just as men are. Among the early Muslims, women participated in public life, especially in times of emergencies. It is reported in the Quran and in history that women not only expressed their opinion freely but also argued and participated in serious discussions with the Prophet (p) himself as well as with other Muslim leaders. They were not shut behind iron bars or considered worthless.

The Economic Aspect

Islam grants women equal rights to contract, to enterprise, to earn and possess independently. A womans life, her property and her honor are as sacred as those of a man. If she commits any offense, her penalty is no less or more than of a mans in a similar case. If she is wronged or harmed, she gets due compensation equal to what a man in her position would get.5

Islam has given women a share of inheritance. Before Islam, women were not only deprived of that share, but were themselves considered as property to be inherited by men. Out of that transferable property Islam made an heir, acknowledging the inherent individuality of women. Whether the woman is a wife or mother, a sister or daughter, she receives a certain share of the deceased kins property, a share that depends on her degree of relationship to the deceased and the number of heirs. This share is hers, and no one can take it away or disinherit her. Even if the deceased wishes to deprive her by making a will to other relations or in favor of any other cause, the Law will not allow him to do so.

Women are exempt from all financial liabilities. As a wife, a woman is entitled to demand of her prospective husband a suitable dowry that will be her own. She is entitled to complete provision and total maintenance by the husband. She does not have to work or share with her husband the family expenses. She is free to retain, after marriage, whatever she possessed before it, and the husband has no right whatsoever to any of her belongings. As a daughter or sister she is entitled to security and provision by the father and brother respectively. That is her privilege. If she wishes to work or be self-supporting and participate in handling the family responsibilities, she is quite free to do so, provided her integrity and honor are safeguarded.

Conclusion

It is thus clear that the status of women in Islam is very high. Islam has granted them rights that match beautifully with their duties. What Islam has established for women is that which suits their nature, gives them full security and protects them against disgraceful circumstances and uncertain channels of life.

There does exist a gap between the rights of women outlined in the Quran, and the prevalent reality in the Muslim world. However, images of Muslim women as ignorant, oppressed and submissive are stereotypical and do no justice to the large number of Muslim women whose firm conviction in the Islamic concepts of family cohesiveness and happiness, and their own individuality, ensures their sense of self-fulfillment.

Soure: WhyIslam.org

Life of Imam Malik Ibn Anas

Imam Malik’s Early Years

Abu Abdullah, Malik ibn Anas ibn Malik ibn Amer al-Asbahee was born in Madinah in the year 93 A.H. (714 CE). His ancestral home was in Yemen, but his grandfather settled in Madinah after embracing Islam.

Born into a well-to-do family, Imam Malik did not need to work for a living. He was highly attracted to the study of Islam, and ended up devoting his entire life to the study of Fiqh. Imam Malik received his education in what was the most important seat of Islamic learning, Madinah, and lived where the immediate descendants and the followers of the companions of the Prophet, sallallahu alayhi wasallam, were living.

It is said that Imam Malik sought out over three hundred Tabi’een or those who saw and followed the companions of the Prophet, sallallahu alayhi wasallam. Imam Malik held the hadeeth of the Prophet, sallallahu alayhi wasallam, in such reverence that he never narrated, taught any hadeeth or gave a fatwa without being in a state of ritual purity, Ghusl. Ismael ibn abi Uwaiss said, “I asked my uncle Imam Malik – about something. He had me sit, made ablution, then said, ‘Laa hawla wala quwata illa billah.’ He did not give any fatwa without saying it first.”

Also, Imam Malik saw fatwa as a sensitive, precise, and important action that can have far reaching results, and used to be extremely careful about giving it to the extent that if he was not sure about a matter, he would not dare to talk. Al-Haytham said, “I once was with Imam Malik when he was asked more than forty questions and I heard him reply, ‘I do not know,’ to thirty two of them.”

Yet, he was the man about whom ash-Shafi’ee said, ‘When scholars are mentioned, Malik is like the star among them.’ Malik said that he did not sit to give fatwa, before seventy of the Madinah scholars first witnessed to his competence in doing so.

Imam Malik became the Imam of the Madinah, and one of the most renowned Imams of Islam.

Imam Malik’s Famous Muwatta

He is the author of al-Muwatta’ (“The Approved”), formed of the sound narrations from the Prophet together with the sayings of his companions, their followers, and those after them. Malik said, “I showed my book to seventy scholars of Madinah, and every single one of them approved it for me (kulluhum wata-ani alayh), so I named it ‘The Approved’.”

Imam Bukhari said that the soundest of all chains of transmission was “Malik, from Nafi, from Ibn Umar.” The scholars of hadeeth call it the Golden Chain, and there are eighty narrations with this chain in the Muwatta. Malik composed al-Muwatta in the course of forty years, having started with ten thousand narrations until he reduced them to their present number of fewer than 2,000.

Like all scholars of Islam, Imam Malik was famous for his piety and integrity. He courageously stood up, and was prepared to suffer, for his convictions. When the governor of Madinah demanded and forced people to take the oath of allegiance to Khalifah al-Mansour, Imam Malik issued a fatwa that such an oath was not binding because it was given under coercion. He based this opinion of the hadeeth, “The divorce of the coerced does not take effect” (laysa ala mustakrahin talag). This resulted in many people finding courage to express their opposition, but Imam Malik was arrested, found guilty of defiance, and publicly flogged.

Imam Malik’s followers and disciples developed a Fiqh school, Madh-hab, based on his Ijtihad which came to be known as the Maliki Madh-hab. This Madh-hab spread in North Africa, al-Andalus, much of Egypt, and some of al-Sham, Yemen, Sudan, Iraq, and Khurasan. Today, Malikis are mostly found in North and West Africa, Egypt, Sudan and the eastern part of the Arabian Peninsula.

On Monday 14th of Rabi-ul-Awwal 179 A H., Imaam Malik (R.A) took leave from this world in the city of Madinah and is buried in the famous al-Baqie cemetery.

Fiqh / Etiquettes of Marriage (Love Making)

In the ideal Islamic situation, the husband and wife will most probably be total strangers to each other, having no kind of personal contact with each other previously due to the strict laws of hijab and pardah in the Shariah. Coupled with this feeling of strangeness are the natural constraints of haya and modesty, that form an integral part of Imaan. Under the particular circumstances it is quite natural that both the husband and wife will be extremely bashful of each other and under considerable strain and anxiety.

In order to “break the ice”, they firstly greet each other with the traditional Islamic greetings of salaam. Thereafter the husband should gently place his right hand on his bride’s forehead and recite:

‘Allahumma in’ni as’a’luka min khai’riha wakhai’ri ma fiha wakhairi ma jabalta’ha alai wa a’udhu bika min shar’riha washar’ri ma fiha wa sharri ma jabalta’ha alai’
(Recommend to read from Arabic script for correct pronunciation)

Translation:-”O Allah! I ask you of her goodness, the good within her and the goodness upon which she was created. I seek Your protection from her evil, the evil within her and the evil upon which she was created.”
(Bukhari, Abu Dawud, Ibn Maja, Al Hakim, Al Baihaqi and Abu Ya’la)

Thereafter, wudhu and two rakats of salatul-Hajah maybe offered as a token of gratitude and thereby requesting assistance from Allah (Rabbul-Izzat) for a successful and blessed marraige, pious offspring, etc.

Then they should engage themselves in some religious talk showing importance to the obedience of Allah’s commands and , through wisdom and tact, become more free and open in the discussion, trying to discover each other’s temperament. As sexual inclinations vary with every individual, the bride and the bridegroom will have to display patience with each other. Sexual union on the first night of marriage is not the most important thing between the couple. Their first intimate association gives them an opportunity to know each other more closely, to assess each other’s feelings and attitudes. With some brides excitement, expectations or fear of intimate union brings about a reluctance in performing sexual union.

One point of great importance that many newly wed, inexperienced men overlook is the importance of extreme gentleness and tenderness on the first night and during the first sexual encounter. Many are under the false notion that gentleness is against “manliness” and the harm and damage that is done to the relationship on the first night due to this foolish notion, has it’s impact on the marraige for months and years to come. During the initial stages of sexual union a virgin generally undergoes considerable anxiety and pain, which results in fear. During such a time the husband must take great care and consideration in his movements and behaviour towards his bride.

One more point of caution to the husband is never to harbour unnecessary suspicions against the wife if for some reason it “appeared” that she was not a virgin. This is a sin. It is forbidden to harbour ill-thoughts about the next Muslim merely on the basis of such conjectures. And worse still is to make her a target of abuse and oppression on this ground. This is Zulm (oppression) and a major sin. There are many reasons a girl could lose her “hymen”, the tissue of virginity – reasons that could be substantiated medically such as heavy flows during menstruation, illness, falling, jumping excessively, horse-riding, certain sporting activities, ageing, etc.

The praying of husband and wife together

It is desirable for the husband and wife to pray 2 rakaat together on their wedding night. This has been narrated from the earliest generation of Muslims, as in the following 2 narrations:

* First: On the authority of Abu Sa’eed Mawla Abu Asyad who said: “I got married while I was a slave. I invited a number of the companions of the Prophet, among them was Ibn Mas’ood, Abu Dharr and Hudhaifa. When the prayer was called, Abu Dharr began to step forward when the others said to him: ‘No!’ He said: ‘Is it so?’ And they said: ‘Yes.’ Then, I stepped forward and led the prayer though I was a slave possessed. They taught me, saying: ‘When your wife comes to you, pray 2 rakaat. Then, ask Allaah for the good of that which has come to you, and seek refuge in Him from its evil. Then it is up to you and it is up to your wife.’” [Ibn Abi Shaibah and ‘Abdur-Razzaaq]

* Second: On the authority of Shaqeeq who said: “A man named Abu Hareez came and said: ‘I have married a young girl, and I am afraid that she will despise me.’ ‘Abdullah ibn Mas’ood said to him: “Verily, closeness is from Allaah, and hatred is from Shaitaan, who wishes to make despicable that which Allaah has allowed. So, when your wife comes to you, tell her to pray behind you 2 rakaat.’” In another version of the same story, “‘Abdullah went on to say: ‘And say: ‘O Allah give Your blessings on me in my wife, and to her in me. O Allaah join us together as long as You join us in good, and split us apart if You send to us that which is better.’” [Ibn Abi Shaibah and at-Tabaraani and ‘Abdur-Razzaaq: Saheeh].

Dua to recite for both before making Love/Sex (everytime)

Bismillahi, Allahumma jannibnaa ash-shaitaan, wa jannib ash-shaitaan maa razaqtanna

(Recommend to read from Arabic script for correct pronunciation)

[In the name of Allah, O Allah, keep us away from the devil, and keep the devil away from that which You may grant us (ie. offspring).]

About this, the Prophet said: “After that, if Allah decrees that they will have a child, the devil will never be able to harm that child”. [al-Bukharee][1]

FOOTNOTE:[Some Scholars say that children are disobedient to their parents usually because the parents forget/forgot to say the above duaa before having sex. Ed. of Salaf-us-Salih Page]

How he should come to her

It is allowed for a Muslim man to enter his wife in her vagina from any direction he wishes – from behind or from the front. About this Allaah revealed the following verse:
“Your wives are a tilth unto you; so approach your tilth when or how ye will” [Al-Quran: al-Baqarah 2:223]

There are also various hadith on this subject, of which I will give only 2:

1. On the authority of Jaabir who said: “The Jews used to say that if a man entered his wife in the vagina but from behind, their child would be cross-eyed! Then Allaah revealed the verse: “Your wives are as a tilth unto you; so approach your tilth when or how ye will;” [al-Baqarah 2:223]. The Prophet said : “From the front or the back, as long as it is in the vagina”. [Al-Bukharee and Muslim]

2. On the authority of Ibn ‘Abbaas who said: “The Ansaar, who had been polytheists, lived with the Jews, who were people of the book. The former viewed the latter as being superior to them in knowledge, and used to follow their example in many things. The people of the book would only make love to their wives from the side, this being the most modest way for the woman, and the Ansaar had followed their example in that. These people from the Quraish, on the other hand, used to expose their women in an uncomely manner. They took pleasure in them from the front, from the back, or laid out flat. When the Makkans came to al-Madeenah at the time of the Hijrah, one of them married a woman from among the Ansaar, and began doing that with her. She disapproved of it and told him: “We used only to be approached from the side, so do that or stay away from me!” This dispute became very serious until it reached the ears of the Prophet. So Allaah, revealed the verse: “Your wives are as a tilth unto you, so approach your tilth when or how ye will;” [al-Baqarah 2:223] (ie. from the front, the back, or laid out flat). What is meant here is the entry which produces children.” [Aboo Dawood, al-Haakim and others: Hasan isnaad and is supported].

The Prohibition of Sodomy

It is forbidden for a Muslim man to enter his wife in her anus. This is understood from the verse quoted above (i.e. since a “planting ground” can only refer to a place where something might grow), and from the narrations cited above. There are also other hadith on the subject, among them:

* First: On the authority of Umm Salama who said: “When the Muhajireen came to Ansaar at al-Madeenah, some of them married women from the Ansaar. The women of the Muhajireen used to lie on their faces (during intercourse), while the women of the Ansaar never did it that way. Then, one of the men of the Muhajireen wanted his wife to do that. She refused until such time as she could ask the Prophet about it. She went to the Prophet but was embarassed to ask the question, adn so Umm Salama asked him. Then the verse was revealed which says: “Your wives are as a tilth unto you; so approach your tilth when or how ye will;” [al-Baqarah 2:223]. The Prophet> said: “No! (not any way you wish) Except in one opening! (ie. the vagina)”. [Ahmad, at-Tirmidhee and others : Saheeh]
* Second: On the authority of Ibn ‘Abbaas who said: “‘Umar ibn Al-Khattaab came to the Prophet and said: ‘O Messenger of Allaah, I am destroyed!’ The Prophet asked: ‘And what has destroyed you, O ‘Umar?’ ‘Umar said: `I turned my mount around last night.’ (An expression which means he has sexual intercourse with his wife penetrating the vagina while mounting her from the rear.) The Prophet gave him no answer and when the revelation came and the verse was revealed which says: “Your wives are as a tilth unto you; so approach your tilth when or how ye will;” [al-Baqarah 2:223] and the Prophet said: “From the front and from the back, just beware of her anus and her menses”. [an-Nasaa’ee in “`Ishratun-Nisaa” with hasan isnaad, at-Tirmidhee and others].
* Third: On the authority of Khuzaima ibn Thaabit who said: “A man asked the Prophet about entering women in the rear, or the entering by a man of his wife in her rear, and the Prohet answered: `Halaal (ie. permissible).’ When the man turned to leave, the Prophet called him or ordered for him to be called back and said : “What did you say? In which of the 2 openings did you mean? If what you meant was from her rear and in her vagina, then yes. But if what you meant was from her rear and in her anus, then no. Verily Allaah is not ashamed of the truth – do not enter your wives in their anuses!” [as-Shaafi, al-Baihaqi and others: Saheeh]

* Fourth: “Allaah does not look at one who comes to his wife in her anus”. [an-Nasaa’ee: Hasan isnaad and supported in “al-‘Ishrah”; at-Tirmidhee and Ibn Hibbaan].

* Fifth: “Cursed are those who come to their wives in their anuses.” [Aboo Dawood, Ahmad and others with hasan isnaad and is supported].

* Sixth: “Whoever has sexual intercourse with a mentruating woman, or a woman in her anus, or approaches a soothsayer and believes what he is told has disbelieved in that which was revealed to Muhammad. [Aboo Dawood, at-Tirmidhee and others: Saheeh].

Making Wudhuu’ between 2 acts with one’s wife

When a Muslim man has had sexual intercourse with his wife in the legal manner and then wishes to return another time, he should first perform wudhuu’, based on the statement of the Prophet : “When one of you comes to his wife and then wishes to return another time, let him perform wudhuu’ between the 2 times (In another version, the same wudhuu’ which he performs for prayer) for verily, it will invigorate his return.” [Muslim, Ibn Abi Shaibah and others].

Bathing is preferable

Bathing, however, is preferable to merely making wudhuu’ in such situations. Abu Raafi’ narrates: “That the Prophet made the rounds of all his wives one night, bathing in the house of each one. He ( i.e. the narrator) asked the Prophet: “Couldn’t you have just bathed once (i.e. at the end)? The Prophet answered : “This way is purer, cleaner and better”.  [Aboo Daawood, an-Nasaa’ee: Hasan in “al-‘Ishrah”, and others].

The Bathing of Husband and Wife together

It is permissible for the husband and wife to bath together in the same place even though he sees her private parts, and she sees his. This is established by a number of authentic hadith, among them:

1. On the authority of ‘Aa’ishah (radiallahu anha) who said: “I used to bathe with the Prophet from a single container of water which was placed between us such that our hands collided inside it. He used to race me such that I would say: `Leave some for me, leave some for me!’ She added: `We were in a state of Janaba ( i.e. the state of having slept together).’”[Al-Bukharee and Muslim].

2. On the authority of Mu’aawiya ibn Haida, who said: “I said: `O Messenger of Allaah, which of our nakedness is allowed, and of which must we beware?’ The Prophet answered, “Guard your nakedness excpet from your wife or those whom your right hand possesses.” (So it is permissible for both spouses to look at and touch the body of his or her companion even the private parts). He said: `O Messenger of Allah, what about if the relatives live together with each other?’ The Prophet answered : “If you can make sure that no one ever sees your nakedness, then do so.” He said: `O Messenger of Allah, what about when one is alone?’ The Prophet said: “Allah is more deserving of your modesty than are the people”.” [Ahmad, Abu Dawood, at-Tirmidhee and others: Saheeh].

The Prohibition of sex when She is Menstruating

It is forbidden for a Muslim man to have sexual intercourse with his wife when she is menstruating. This is clear in the following verse of the Qur’an:

“They ask thee concerning women’s courses. Say: They are a hurt and a pollution: So keep away from women in
their courses, and do not approach them until they are clean. But when they have purified themselves, ye may
approach them in any manner, time, or place ordained for you by Allah. For Allah loves those who turn to Him
constantly and He loves those who keep themselves pure and clean.” [Al – Quran: Al-Baqarah, 2:222]

There are also hadith about this, among them:

* First: “Whoever has sexual intercourse with a menstruating woman, or a woman in her anus, or approaches a soothsayer and believes what he is told has disbelieved in that which was revealed to Muhammad.”

* Second: On the authority of Anas ibn Malik, who said: “When one of their women has their period, the Jews used to put her out of the house, and they would not eat, drink, or sleep with her in the house. The Prophet was asked about this, and Allaah revealed the verse:

“They ask thee concerning women’s courses. Say: They are a hurt and a pollution: so keep away from women in their courses, …

Then the Prophet said: “Be with them in the house, and do everything except for intercourse itself.” The Jews said: “This man wants to leave nothing which we do without doing something different.” Then, Asyad ibn Hudair said: “O Messenger of Allah, verily the Jews says such-and-such, shoudl we not then have sexual intercourse during menstruation?” The Prophet’s face changed such that they thought that he was enraged with them, so they left. As they were coming out, they saw a gift of milk being brought to the Prophet. The Prophet then sent someone after them to give them a drink of milk, so they felt that he was not actually angry with them.” [Muslim, Abu ‘Auwaana and Abu Daawood].

The Penitence of One who Has Sex during Menses

Whoever is overcome by desire and has sexual intercourse with his wife when she is menstruating and before she becomes clean must give the value of one dinar’s weight of gold or about 4.25 grams (4.2315 to be more precise), or half that amount. This is based on a hadith narrated by ‘Abdullaah ibn ‘Abbaas from the Prophet in relation to one who enters his wife while she is on her period as follows: “Let him give one dinar in charity, or one half dinar.” [At-Tirmidhee, Abu Dawood, At-Tabaraani and others: Saheeh].

What is Permissible when She is on her Periods

It is allowed for him to enjoy pleasure with his wife in any way except for her private parts when she is on her period. There are several hadiths about this:

First: “and do everything except intercourse itself.” [Muslim, Abu ‘Auwaana and Aboo Daawood]
Second: On the authority of ‘Aa’ishah who said: “When we were on our periods, the Prophet used to order us to put on a waist cloth that her husband can then lie with her.” One time she said: “… her husband can then fondle and caress her.” [al-Bukhaaree, Muslims and others].

Third: On the authority of one of the wives of the Prophet who said: “When the Prophet wanted something from one of his wives who was on her period, he put a cloth over her private parts, and then did whatever he wanted.” [Abo Daawood: Saheeh]

When is it Allowed to resume Sexual Activity after Menses?

When she becomes clean of any menstrual blood, and the flow stops completely, it is allowed for them to resume sexual activity after she washes the place where the blood had been, or performs wudhuu’, or takes a complete bath. Whichever of these three alternatives she does makes it allowed for them to resume sexual activity, based on Allaah’s statement in the Qur’an:

“But when they have purified themselves, ye may approach them in any manner, time, or place ordained for you by Allah. For Allah loves those who turn to Him constantly and He loves those who keep themselves pure and clean.” [Al-Quran: Al-Baqarah 2:222]

This is the position of Ibn Hazm, ‘Ataa, Qatadah, al-Awzaa’ee and Daawud az-Zaahiree and of Mujaahid: as Ibn Hazm says: “All three of these are a purification – so whichever of them she uses after the cessation of her periods, then she is lawful for her husband.”

The same term is used to mean washing the private parts in the Aayah revealed concerning the people of Qubaa: “In it are men who love to be purified; and Allah loves those who make themselves pure.” [at-Tawbah 9:108]

There is nothing here in the Aayah however, or in the Sunnah, to restrict the Aayah in question to any of the three meanings – and to do so requires a further proof.

Making Wudhuu’ between 2 acts with one’s wife
When a Muslim man has had sexual intercourse with his wife in the legal manner and then wishes to return another time, he should first perform wudhuu’, based on the statement of the Prophet : “When one of you comes to his wife and then wishes to return another time, let him perform wudhuu’ between the 2 times (In another version, the same wudhuu’ which he performs for prayer) for verily, it will invigorate his return.” [Muslim, Ibn Abi Shaibah and others].

Bathing is preferable

Bathing, however, is preferable to merely making wudhuu’ in such situations. Abu Raafi’ narrates: “That the Prophet made the rounds of all his wives one night, bathing in the house of each one. He ( i.e. the narrator) asked the Prophet: “Couldn’t you have just bathed once (i.e. at the end)? The Prophet answered : “This way is purer, cleaner and better”. [Aboo Daawood, an-Nasaa’ee: Hasan in “al-‘Ishrah”, and others].

The Bathing of Husband and Wife together

It is permissible for the husband and wife to bath together in the same place even though he sees her private parts, and she sees his. This is established by a number of authentic hadith, among them:

1. On the authority of ‘Aa’ishah (radiallahu anha) who said: “I used to bathe with the Prophet from a single container of water which was placed between us such that our hands collided inside it. He used to race me such that I would say: `Leave some for me, leave some for me!’ She added: `We were in a state of Janaba ( i.e. the state of having slept together).’”[Al-Bukharee and Muslim].

2. On the authority of Mu’aawiya ibn Haida, who said: “I said: `O Messenger of Allaah, which of our nakedness is allowed, and of which must we beware?’ The Prophet answered, “Guard your nakedness excpet from your wife or those whom your right hand possesses.” (So it is permissible for both spouses to look at and touch the body of his or her companion even the private parts). He said: `O Messenger of Allah, what about if the relatives live together with each other?’ The Prophet answered : “If you can make sure that no one ever sees your nakedness, then do so.” He said: `O Messenger of Allah, what about when one is alone?’ The Prophet said: “Allah is more deserving of your modesty than are the people”.” [Ahmad, Abu Dawood, at-Tirmidhee and others: Saheeh].

Making Wudhuu’ after Sex and before Sleeping

It is best for husband and wife not to sleep after having sex until they first perform wudhuu’. There are various hadith about this, among them:

* First: On the authority of ‘Aa’shah who said: “Whenever the Prophet wished to sleep or eat while in a state of Janaba (i.e. after having sex and before bathing), he would wash his private parts and perform wudhuu’ as for prayer.” [Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim].

* Second: On the authority of Ibn ‘Umar who said: “O Messenger of Allah, should we go to sleep in a state of janaba?” The Prophet answered: “Yes, after making wudhuu.” [Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim]. In another version: “Perform wudhuu’ and wash your private parts, and then sleep.” [Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim]. And, in another version: “Yes, you can perform wudhuu’, sleep, and bathe whenever you want.” [Muslim and al-Baihaqi]. And, in still another version: “Yes, and perform wudhuu’ if you wish.” (This last version proves that this wudhuu’ is not obligatory.) [Ibn Khuzima and Ibn Hibban: Saheeh].

* Third: On the authority of ‘Ammaar ibn Yaasir, the Prophet said: “There are three which the angels will never approach: The corpse of a disbeliever; a man who wears perfume of women; and, one who has had sex until he performs wudhuu’.” [Abu Dawood, Ahmad and others: Hasan].

The Ruling of this Wudhuu’

This wudhuu’ is not obligatory, but is very highly and definitely commendable. This ( i.e. its not being obligatory) is based on the hadith narrated by ‘Umar in which he asked the Prophet: “Should we go to sleep in a state of janaba?” To which the Prophet answered: “Yes, and perform wudhuu’ if you wish.” [Ibn Hibbaan: Saheeh]. This is also supported by other hadith, among them a hadith narrated by ‘Aa’ishah who said: “The Prophet used to sleep in a state of janaba without having touched water, until he would get up later and bathe.” [Ibn Abi Shaiba, at-Tirmidhee, Abu Daawood and others: Saheeh].

In another version narrated by ‘Aa’ishah , she said: “”He used to spend the night in a state of janaba until Bilal came in the morning to make the adhaan. Then, he would get up, bathe while I looked at the water dripping from his head, and go out. Then, I would hear his voice in the Fajr prayer. Then, he would remain fasting.” Mutarrif said: “I said to Aamir: In the month of Ramadhaan?” He said: “Yes, in Ramadhaan and in other than Ramadhaan.” [Ibn Abi Shaiba, Ahmad and others: Saheeh].

Making Tayammum in a state of Janaba instead of Wudhuu’

It is also permissible to make Tayammum sometimes instead of wudhuu’ before sleeping. This is based on a hadith of ‘Aa’ishah in which she said: “When the Prophet was in a state of janaba and wished to sleep, he used to make wudhuu’ or Tayammum.” [Al-Baihaqi: Hasan]

Bathing before Sleeping is Perferable

Bathing however, is perferable to any of the above-mentioned possibilities as is clear in the hadith of `Abullaah ibn Qais who said: “I asked ‘Ai’ishah : “What did the Prophet do when in a state of janaba? Did he bathe before sleeping or sleep before bathing?” She answered: “He did all of those things. Sometimes he bathe and then slept. And sometimes he performed wudhuu’ and then slept.” I said: “Praise be to Allah who made things flexible.” [Muslim, Ahmad and Abu `Auwaana].

The Lawfulness of Coitus Interruptus

(Withdrawal of the penis from the vagina at the time of ejaculation with the purpose of avoiding impregnation. This can be done only with the permission of one’s wife).

It is allowed for a Muslim man to practice coitus interruptus with his wife. There are several hadith about this:

First: On the authority of Jaabir who said: “We were practising coitus interruptus, and the Qur’an was being revealed.” [al-Bukhaaree and Muslim]. In another version, he said: “We used to practise coitus interruptus in the lifetime of the Prophet. This reached the Prophet, and he did not prohibit us from doing it.” [Muslim, an-Nasaa’ee and at-Tirmidhee].

Second: On the authority of Abu Sa’eed al-Khudhriy, who said: “A man came to the Prophet and said: “I have a young girl (right-hand possession), and I practise coitus interruptus with her. I want that which men want, but the Jews claim that coitus interruptus is minor infanticide.” The Prophet said: “The Jews have lied, the Jews have lied. If Allaah wished to create a child, you would not be able to prevent it.” [An-Naasaa’ee in al-‘Ishrah: Abu Dawood and others: Saheeh].

Third: On the authority of Jaabir, a man came to the Prophet and said: “I have a slave girl who serves us and waters our date trees. Sometimes I go to her, but I dislike that she should become pregnant by me”. The Prophet said: “use coitus interruptus if you like, but whatever has been ordained for her will come.” After some time, the man again came to the Prophet and said: “She has become pregnant!” The Prophettold him: “I told you that whatever has been ordained for her will come.” [Muslim, Abu Dawood and others].

The Prohibition of Spreading Bedroom Secrets

It is forbidden for either the husband or the wife to spread any of the secrets of their bedroom to anyone outside. The following two hadith are about this:

First: “Verily among the worst people before Allaah on the Day of Judgement is a man who approaches his wife sexually and she responds and then he spreads her secrets.” [Muslim, Ibn Abi Shaiba, Ahmad and others].
Second: “On the authority of Asmaa bint Yazid who narrated “that she was once in the presence of the Prophet and there were both men and women sitting. The Prophet then said: “Perhaps a man might discuss what he does with his wife, or perhaps a woman might inform someone what she did with her husband?” The people were silent. Then I said: “O, Yes! O Messenger of Allaah verily both the women and men do that.” Then the Prophet said: “Do not do that. It is like a male shaitaan who meets a female shaitaan along the way, and has sex with her while the people look on!” [Ahmad: Hasan or Saheeh due to supports]

The Obligation of a Wedding Feast

The husband must sponsor a feast after the consummation of the marriage. This is based on the order of the Prophet to ‘Abur-Rahman ibn ‘Auf to do so, and on the hadith narrated by Buraida ibn At-Haseeb, who said: “When ‘Ali sought the hand of Faatimah (the Prophet’s daughter) in marraige, he said that the Prophet said: “A wedding (and in another version “a bridegroom”) must have a feast.” The narrator said: “Sa’ad said: ‘(a feast) of a sheep.’ Someone else said: ‘Of such and such a quantity of corn.” [Ahmad and at-Tabaraani: Its isnaad is acceptable as al-Haafiz Ibn Hajr says in Fathul-Baaree: 9/188]

Life Sketches of Ummahat ul Momineen

Every Muslim likes to know (and every muslim must know) about, the members of the family of the Prophet Mohammad (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam). The Muhaddithin and historians all agree that eleven ladies had the honour of being wives of the Prophet Mohammad (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam). A very brief account of their lives is, therefore, given here.

Hadhrat Khadijah (Radhiyallaho anha)
Hadhrat Sauda (Radhiyallaho anha)
Hadhrat Aishah (Radhiyallaho anha)
Hadhrat Hafsah (Radhiyallaho anha)
Hadhrat Zainab bint Khuzaimah (Radhiyallaho anha)
Hadhrat Umme Salamah (Radhiyallaho anha)
Hadhrat Zainab bint Jahsh (Radhiyallaho anha)
Hadhrat Juwairiah bintul Harith (Radhiyallaho anha)
Hadhrat Umme Habibah (Radhiyallaho anha)
Hadhrat Safiyyah (Radhiyallaho anha)
Hadhrat Maimoonah (Radhiyallaho anha)

Hadhrat Khadijah (Radhiyallaho anha)
She was the first among them. At the time of her marriage, she was 40 year old and the Prophet Mohammad (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) was twenty-five. She begot all his children, except a son, Ibrahim.

She was first to be married to Waraqah bin Naufal, but this marriage could not take place. Her first husband was Atiq bin Aa’iz. She had a daughter from him, whose name was Hind. Hind grew up and embraced Islam, and she was the mother of many children. On the death of Atiq, Khadijah (Radhiyallaho anha) was married to Abu Hala, and got two children from him viz. Hind and Halah. Hind lived up to the time of Ali’s Caliphate. On the death of Abu Halah, the Prophet Mohammad (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) married her as his first wife.

She died in Ramadan of the 10th year of the mission at the age of sixty-five. He loved her very much and did not marry any other woman during her life time. She was popularly called Tahirah (Clean and pure) even before Islam.

Her children from other husbands are therefore known as Banu Tahirah. Her virtues and privileges have been mentioned extensively (in Hadith). The Prophet Mohammad (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) laid her in the grave with his own hands. The funeral service had not till then been enjoined.

Hadhrat Sauda bint Zam’ah bin Qais (Radhiyallaho anha)
She was previously married to her cousin Hadrath Sukran bin ‘Amor (Radhiyallaho anho). The couple embraced Islam and emigrated to Abysinnia. Hadhrat Sukran (Radhiyallaho anha) died in Abyssinia. Hadhrat Saudah (Radhiyallaho anha), now a widow, returned to Mecca. The Prophet Mohammad (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) , on the death of Hadhrat Khadijah (Radhiyallaho anha) in Shawwal of the same year married Hadhrat Saudah (Radhiyallaho anha). We know the devotion of the Prophet Mohammad (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) in his salaat. Once Hadhrat Saudah (Radhiyallaho anha) stood after him in Tahajjud. The next day she said to him:

“O, Prophet of Allah! Last night you took so long in your Ruk’u that I apprehended bleeding from my nose.”

(As she was bulky, the strain might have been too much for her).

The Prophet Mohammad (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) once intended to divorce her. As meanwhile Hadhrat Aishah {Radhiyallaho anha) had also been married to the Prophet Mohammad (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) , she said:

“O, Prophet of Allah! I am ready to forego my turn in favor of Hadhrat Aishah {Radhiyallaho anha), but I don’t like to be divorced (by you). I wish to be in Paradise as one of your wives.”

The Prophet Mohammad (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) agreed to this suggestion. She died in about 55 A. H. towards the end of the Khilafat of Hadhrat Umar (Radhiyallaho anho).

There was another Qureysh woman of the same name. She also a widow having about six children. The Prophet Mohammad (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) offered to marry her, but she said:

“O, Prophet of Allah! You are dearer to me than any other person in this world. I do not like my children to a nuisance to you.”

He appreciated this, and withdrew the offer.

Hadhrat Aishah (Radhiyallaho anha)
She too was married to the Prophet Mohammad (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) in Swawwal of the 10th year of the Nubuwwat. She was born in the 4th year of Nubuwwat and was married when she was six, but was actually sent by her parents to live with the Prophet Mohammad (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) after his emigration to Madinah, when she was nine. She was eighteen at the time of the Prophet Mohammad’s (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) death. She died on the night of Tuesday, the 17th Ramadan, 57 A. H at the age of sixty-six. She desired at the time of her death that she might be buried, along with other Ummahat-ul- Momineen, in the public graveyard, though she could be buried by the side of the Prophet Mohammad’s (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) grave, which was in her house.

She was the only wife of the Prophet Mohammad (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) who had not been married previously. All the remaining wives had either been widowed or divorced (some quite a few time before they became Ummuhat-ul-Momineen. To be married in Shawwal was considered a bad omen among the Arab women.

Hadhrat Aishah (Radhiyallaho anha) says:

“I was married in Shawwal, It was also Shawwal when I was sent to live with the Prophet Mohammad (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) . Which of the Prophet Mohammad’s (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) wives has been more blessed with his 1love and Allah’s other favors than me?”

On the death of Hadhrat Khadijah (Radhiyallaho anha), Hadhrat Khaulah bint Hakim (Radhiyallaho anha) came to the Prophet Mohammad (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) and said:

“O, Prophet of Allah! Don’t you like to marry again?” The Prophet Mohammad (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) : “Whom can I marry?”

Khaylah: “I know one virgin and one widow.” The Prophet Mohammad (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) : “Name them.”

Khaulah: “The virgin is Aishah, (Radhiyallaho anha) the daughter of your bosom friend Abu Bakr (Radhiyallaho anho), and the widow is Saudah bint Zam’ah.”

The Prophet Mohammad (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) : “All right! You may make the proposal.”

Hadhrat Khaulah (Radhiyallaho anha) then went Hadhrat Aisha’s (Radhiyallaho anha) mother Hadhrat Umme-Rooman (Radhiyallaho anha) and said to her: “I have come with good tidings for your family.”

Hadhrat Umme Rooman (Radhiyallaho anha): “What is that?” Hadhrat Khaulah (Radhiyallaho anha): “The Prophet Mohammad (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) has sent me to seek Hadhrat Aishah (Radhiyallaho anha’s) hand for him”

Hadhrat Umme Rooman (Radhiyallaho anha): “But ‘Hadhrat Aishah (Radhiyallaho anha) is like his niece. How can she be married to him? Let me consult her father.”

Hadhrat Abu Bakr (Radhiyallaho anho) was not at home at that time. When he came, the proposal was placed before him, and he expressed the same difficulty. Hadhrat Khaulah (Radhiyallaho anho) returned to the Prophet Mohammad (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) and apprised him of their difficulty. The Prophet Mohammad (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) said: “Abu Bakr is my bosom friend and brother-in-Islam, but this does not forbid my marrying his daughter.”

Hadhrat Khaulah (Radhiyallaho anho) went and informed Hadhrat Abu Bakr (Radhiyallaho anho) accordingly. Abu Bakr (Radhiyallaho anho) was extremely glad to call the Prophet Mohammad (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) to his home and perform Aishah’s (Radhiyallaho anha) Nikah with him. A few months later, when the Prophet Mohammad (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) had emigrated to Madinah, Hadhrat Abu Bakr (Radhiyallaho anho) said to the Prophet Mohammad (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) : “Why don’t you have your wife Hadhrat Aishah (Radhiyallaho anha) to live with you?” He said: “I have to make some preparations, etc., before I do that.”

Hadhrat Abu Bakr (Radhiyallaho anho) presented him with some money, with which necessary things were arranged. Hardhat Aishah (Radhiyallaho anha) then started living by the Prophet Mohammad (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) from Shawwal of l or 2 A. H. She shared ‘bed with the Prophet Mohammad (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) for first time in Hadhrat Abu Bakr’s (Radhiyallaho anho) house. These are the three marriages, which the Prophet Mohammad (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) had before Hijrah. All the remaining, wives were taken by him in Madinah.

Hadhrat Hafsah (Radhiyallaho anha)
She was the daughter of ‘Hadhrat Umar (Radhiyallaho anho) who was born in Mecca five years before the Nubuwwat. She was first married to Hadhrat Khunais bin Huzaifah (Radhiyallaho anho), who was one of the very early Muslims. He first emigrated to Abyssinia and then to Madinah. He participated in Badr, and was fatally wounded in Badr (or in Uhud) and died of the wound in the year l or 2 A. H. Hadhrat Hafsah (Radhiyallaho anha) had also emigrated to Madinah with her husband. When her husband died, Hadhrat Umar (Radhiyallaho anho) went to Hadhrat Abu Bakr (Radhiyallaho anho) and said:

“I want to give Hafsah in marriage to you.” Hadhrat Abu Bakr (Radhiyallaho anho) kept quiet and said nothing. Meanwhile Ruqayyah (Radhiyallaho anha) the daughter of the Prophet Mohammad (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) and the wife of Hadhrat Usman (Radhiyallaho anho) died.

Hadhrat Umar (Radhiyallaho anho) went to Hadhrat Usman (Radhiyallaho anho) and offered Hadhrat Hafsah (Radhiyallaho anho’s) hand to him.

He declined by saying, “I have no mind to marry for the present.” Hadhrat Umar (Radhiyallaho anho) complained of this to the Prophet Mohammad (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam).

The Prophet Mohammad (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) said: “I tell you of a husband for Hafsah better than Usman and of a wife for Usman better than Hafsah.”

He then took Hadhrat Hafsah (Radhiyallaho anha) as (next wife, and gave his own daughter Hadhrat Umme Kulsum (Radhiyallaho anha) in marriage to Hadhrat Usman (Radhiyallaho anho). Hadhrat Abu Bakr (Radhiyallaho anho) later said to Hadhrat Umar (Radhiyallaho anho):

“When you offered Hafsah’s hand to me, I kept quiet as the Prophet Mohammad (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) had expressed to me his intention of marrying her. I could neither accept your offer nor disclose the Prophet Mohammad’s (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) secret to you. I, therefore, kept quiet. If the Prophet Mohammad (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) had changed his mind, I would have gladly married her.”

Hadhrat Umar (Radhiyallaho anho) says: “Abu Bakr’s silence over the offer was in fact more shocking to me than ‘Usman’s rejection.”

Hadhrat Hafsah (Radhiyallaho anha) was a very pious woman, and very much devoted to Salaat. She would often fast during the day and spend the night in prayers. Once the Prophet Mohammad (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) , for some reason, was displeased with Hafsah and even pronounced the first divorce to her. ‘Hadhrat Umar (Radhlyallaho anho) was naturally very much shocked over this. Jibraeel Alayhis came to the Prophet Mohammad (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) and said: “Allah wants you to take Hafsah back, as she is fasting often and spending her nights in Salaat, and also Allah wants it for Hadhrat Umar’s (Radhiyallaho anho) sake.”

The Prophet Mohammad (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) therefore took her back. She died in Jamadil oola, 45 A. H., at the age of 63.

Hadhrat Zainab (Radhiyallaho anha)
She was the next to be married to the Prophet Mohammad (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) . There are divergent reports about her previous husbands. According to one report she was first married to Hadhrat Abdullah bin Jahsh (Radhiyallaho anho) who was killed in Uhud, as we have already seen in his story in chapter VII. According to another report, she was first married to Tufail ibnul al Harith and when divorced by him was remarried to his brother Ubaidah ibnul Harith, who was killed in Badr. The Prophet Mohammad (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) married her in Ramadan, 3 A.H. She lived with the Prophet Mohammad (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) for eight months only, as she died in Rabi-ul-Akhir, 4 A.H.

Hadhrat Zainab and Hadhrat Khadijah (Radhiyallaho anha) are the two wives of the Prophet Mohammad (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) who died during his life time. All the other wives lived on after him and died later. Hadhrat Zainab (Radhiyallaho anha) spent very liberally on the poor, and was ul Masakin’ (mother of the poor) even before Islam.

After her death, the Prophet Mohammad (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) married Hadhrat Umme Salmah (Radhiyallaho anha).

Hadhrat Umme Salamah (Radhiyallaho anha)
She was the daughter of Hadhrat Abu Ummayyah (Radhiyallaho anhu). She was first married to her cousin Hadhrat bin Abdul Asad known as Abu Salamah (Radhiyallaho anhu). The couple embraced Islam in the very beginning and emigrated to Abyssinia, due to the persecutions of Qureysh. A son was born to them in exile, who was named Salamah. After returning from Abyssinia, the family emigrated to Madinah. Hadhrat Umme Salamah’s (Radhiyallaho anha) story about her journey to Madinah, has been already given in the early part of the chapter. After reaching Madinah, Hadhrat Umme Salmah (Rad laho anha) got another son ‘Umar and two daughters Durrah and Zainab (Radhiyallaho anhum).

Hadhrat Abu Salamah (Radhiyallaho anho) was the eleventh man to embrace Islam. He participated in the battle of Badr as well as in Uhud. He got a severe wound in Uhud, which did not heal for a long time. He was sent by the Prophet Mohammad (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) in an expedition in Safar, 4 A. H.

When he returned from the expedition, the old wound again started giving trouble and at last he died of the same on 8th Jamadil-Akhir, 4 A. H. Hadhrat Umme Salamah (Rad, laho anha) was pregnant at the time. Zainab was born to her after the death of her husband. After she had completed her Iddat (waiting period), Hadhrat Abu Bakr (Radlaho anho) proposed to marry her, but she declined.

Later, the Prophet Mohammad (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) offered to marry her. She said: “O, Prophet of Allah! I have quite a few children with me and I am very sensitive by nature. Moreover, a people are in Mecca, and their permission for getting remarried is necessary.”

The Prophet Mohammad (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) said: “Allah will look after your children and your sensitiveness will vanish in due course. None of people will dislike the proposed marriage”.

She then asked her (eldest) son Hadhrat Salamah (Radhiyallaho anho) to serve as her guardian and give her in marriage to the Prophet Mohammad (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) She was married in the end of Shawwal, 4 A. H. She says: “I had heard from the Prophet Mohammad (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) that a person struck with a calamity should recite this prayer:

“O, Allah! Recompense me for this affliction by giving me something better than what I have lost: then Allah would accept his prayer.” I had been reciting this prayer since the death of Hadhrat Abu Salamah (Radhiyallaho anho), but I could not imagine a husband better than he, till Allah arranged my marriage with the Prophet Mohammad (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) .” Hadhrat Aishah (Radhiyallaho anha) says:

“Umme Salamah (Radhiyallaho anha) was famous for her beauty. Once I contrived to see her. I found her much more beautiful than I had heard. I mentioned this to Hafsah who said. “In my opinion, she is not as beautiful as people say.” She was the last of the Prophet Mohammad (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) wives to die. It was in 59 or 62 A. H. She was 84 at the time of her death, and as such she was born 9 years before Nubuwwat.

As already been said, the Prophet Mohammad (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) married her after the death of Hadhrat Zainab Khuzaimah (Radhiyallaho anha). She therefore lived in Hadhrat Zainab’s (Radhiyallaho anha) house. She found a had-mill, a kettle and some barley in an earthen jar, lying in the house. She milled some barley and after putting some fat cooked a preparation, which she served to the Prophet Mohammad (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) on the very first day of her marriage with him.

Hadhrat Zainab bint Jahsh (Radhiyallaho anha)
She was the Prophet Mohammad’s (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) cousin. She was first given in marriage by the Prophet Mohammad (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) to his adopted son Hadhrat Zaid bin Harithah (Radhiyallaho anho). When Hadhrat Zaid (Radhiyallaho anho) divorced her, she was married to the Prophet Mohammad (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) by command of Allah, as mentioned in Surah Al Ahzab. This took place in 5 A.H., at that time she was 35. She was therefore born 17 years before Nubuwwat. She was always proud of the fact that, the other wives while all the other wives were given in marriage to the Prophet Mohammad (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) by their guardians, it was Allah Himself Who did this for her.

When Hadhrat Zaid (Radhiyallaho anho) divorced her and she had completed her Iddat, the Prophet Mohammad (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) sent the proposal to her. She said: “I cannot say anything until I have consulted my Allah.” She performed Wudhu, said two rakaat of Salaat, and prayed to Allah: “O, Allah! Thy Prophet proposes to marry me. If I am fit for the honor, then give me in his marriage.”

Allah answered her prayer by revealing the following verse to the Prophet Mohammad (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) :

“So when Zaid had performed the necessary formality (of divorce) from her, we gave her unto thee in marriage, so that (henceforth) there may be no sin for believers in respect of the wives of their adopted sons, when the latter have performed the necessary formality (of release) from them. The Commandment of Allah must be fulfilled.” (XXXIII:37)

When she received the good news about this revelation, she prostrated before Allah in thanksgiving. Prophet Mohammad (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) arranged a big feast of Walimah for this marriage. A goat was slaughtered and mutton-curry with bread was served to the guests. People came in groups, and were served till all of them were fed.

Hadhrat Zainab (Radhiyallaho anha) had a very large heart for spending in the way of Allah. She earned by working with her hands and spent all “her earnings in charity. It was about her that the Prophet Mohammad (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) prophesied:

“My wife with long hands will be the first to meet me after my death.” The wives took this to mean the physical length of arms and began to measure their hands with a stick. The hands of Hadhrat Saudah (Radhiyallaho anha) came out to be the longest by measurement. But when Hadhrat Zainab (Radhiyallaho anha) died first, the meaning of the metaphor used by the Prophet Mohammad (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) dawned upon them. She fasted very often. She died in 20 and ‘Umar (Radhiyallaho anho) led the funeral service. She fifty at the time of her death.

Hadhrat Juwairiah (Radhiyallaho anha)
She was the daughter of Harith, the chief of Banu Mustaliq and was married to Musafe’ bin Safwan.

She was one of the large number of captives who fell into Muslim hands after the battle of Muraisee’, and she was given to Hadhrat Thabit bin Qais (Radhiyallaho anho). He offered to release her for 360 Dirhams. She came to the Prophet Mohammad (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) and said: “O, Prophet of Allah! I am the daughter of Harith who is the chief of the, and you know my story. The ransom demanded by Hadhrat Thabit (Radhiyallaho anh) is too much for me. I have come to seek your help in the matter.”

The Prophet Mohammad (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) agreed to pay her ransom, set her free, and offered to take her as his wife. She was very glad to accept this offer. She was married to the Prophet Mohammad (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) in 5 A.H. and as a consequence of this marriage, the prisoners of Banu Mustaliq (Juwairiah’s tribe), about a hundred families, were all set free by the Muslims.

“The tribe which so honoured by the Prophet Mohammad’s (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) relationship,” they said, “should not remain in slavery.” Such were the noble expediences in all the marriages of the Prophet Mohammad (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) . Hadhrat Juwairiah (Radhiyallaho anha) was pretty, her face was very attractive. Three days before her falling captive in the battle, she had seen in her dream the moon coming out from Madinah and falling into her lap. She says:

“When I was captured, I began to hope that my dream would come true.” She was 20 at time of her marriage with the Prophet Mohammad (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) . She died in Rabi-ul-Awwal, 50 A.H., in Madinah at the age of 65.

Hadhrat Umme Habibah (Radhiyallaho anha) was the daughter of Abu Sufyan, and was first married to Ubaidullah bin Jahsh in Mecca. The couple embraced Islam, and then emigrated to Abyssinia due to persecution by the Qureysh. One night she saw her husband (in a dream) in the most ugly and obnoxious form. The next day she came to know that he had turned Christian. She, however, remained a Muslim and was therefore separated from him. She was now all alone in exile. But Allah soon recompensed her loss. The Prophet Mohammad (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) sent her an offer of marriage through the King Negus, who sent a woman named Abrahah to her with the message. She was so happy with the good news that she made over the bracelets and other jewellery that she was wearing to the woman in gratification.

King Negus represented the Prophet Mohammad (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) Nikah ceremony, and gave her 400 dinars as her portion and many other things in dowry from himself.

He also gave a feast and dinars as gift to all those who were present in the ceremony. The Negus then dispatched her to Madinah, with her dowry and other gifts such as perfume, etc. This marriage took place in 7 A. H. (Her father was not a Muslim then). She most probably died in 44 A.H.

Hadhrat Safiyyah (Radhiyallaho anha)
She was the daughter of Hayi, Who was a descendant of Hadhrat Harun (Alaihis salaam) the brother of Moosa (Alaihis salaam). She was first married to Salam bin Mishkam and then to Kinallah bin Abi Huqaiq at the time of Khevbar. Kinallah was killed in the battle and she was captured by the Muslims. Hadhrat Dahya Kalbi (Radhiyallaho anha) requested for a maid, and the Prophet Mohammad (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) made her over to him. At this, the other Sahabah approached the Prophet Mohammad (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) and said:

“O, Prophet of Allah! Ballu Nazir and Banu Quraizah (the Jewish tribes of Madinah) will feel offended to see the daughter of a Jewish chief working as a maid. We therefore suggest that she may be taken as your own wife.”

The Prophet Mohammad (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) paid a reasonable sum of money to Hadhrat Dahya (Radhiyallaho allho) as ransom, and said to Safiyyah: “You are now free; if you like you can go back to your tribe or can be my wife.”

She said: “I longed to be with you while I was a Jew. How can I leave you now, when I am a Muslim?”

This is probably a reference to the fact that she once saw in her dream a portion of the moon falling into her lap. When she mentioned her dream to Kinanah, he smote her face so severely that she developed a mark on her eye. He said: “You seem to be desiring to become the wife of the King of Madinah.”

Her father is also reported to have treated her similarly when she related the same or similar dream to him. She again saw (in her dream) the sun lying on her breast. When she mentioned this to her husband, he remarked:

“You seem to be wishing to become the Queen of Madinah.” She says: “I was seventeen when I was married to the Prophet Mohammad (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) .

She came to live with the Prophet Mohammad (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) when he was camping at the first stage from Khaiber. Next morning, he said to the Sahabah: “Let everybody bring whatever he has got to eat.”

They brought their own dates, cheese, butter, etc. A long leather sheet was spread and all sat round it to share the food among themselves. This was the Walimah for the marriage.

She died in Ramadan, 50 A. H., when she was about 60.

Hadhrat Maimoonah (Radhiyallaho anha)
She was the daughter of Harith bin Hazan. Her original name was Barrah but she was later renamed Maimoonah by the Prophet Mohammad (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) . She was first married to Abu Rahim bin Abdul Uzza. According to some reports, she was married twice before she became Ummul Mominin. She had been widowed lately when the Prophet Mohammad (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) married her at Saraf, a place lying on his journey to Mecca for ‘Umrah in Zul Qa’dah 7 A.H. He had intended to start living with her when in Mecca after performing ‘Umrah but, as Qureysh did not allow him to enter Mecca, he called her over to him in the same place on his return journey. Many years later she died and was buried exactly at the same place in 51 A. H. (when she was 81).

This is a strange coincidence that at a certain place during one Journey she is married, at the same place on the return journey she starts living with the Prophet Mohammad (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) and at the very place during another journey she dies and is buried.

Hadhrat Aishah (Radhiyallaho anha) says: “Maimoonah was the most pious, and the most mindful of her kith and kin, among the Prophet Mohammad’s (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) wives.”

Hadhrat Yazid bin Asam (Radhiyallaho anha) says: “She was seen either engaged in Salaat or in domestic work. When she was doing neither, she was busy in Miswak.” She was the last woman to be married by the Prophet Mohammad (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) . Certain Muhaddithin have, however, mentioned one or two other marriages contracted by the Prophet Mohammad (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) .

Author: Shaikhal Hadith Muhammad Zakariyya Kandhalvi (Rahmatullahi Alayh)

Dua Istikhara

On the authority of Jaabir Ibn ‘Abdullah he said: The Prophet (S) would instruct us to pray for guidance in all of our concerns, just as he would teach us a chapter from the Qur’an. He (S) would say ‘if any of you intends to undertake a mater then let him pray two supererogatory units (two rak’ah naafilah) of prayer and after which he should supplicate:
(i)
 
عَنْ جَابِرِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُمَا، قَالَ: كَانَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَيُعَلِّمُنَا الِاسْتِخَارَةَ فِي الأُمُورِ كُلِّهَا، كَمَا يُعَلِّمُنَا السُّورَةَ مِنَ القُرْآنِ، يَقُولُ: ” إِذَا هَمَّ أَحَدُكُمْ بِالأَمْرِ، فَلْيَرْكَعْ رَكْعَتَيْنِ مِنْ غَيْرِ الفَرِيضَةِ، ثُمَّ لِيَقُلْ: اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّي أَسْتَخِيرُكَ بِعِلْمِكَ وَأَسْتَقْدِرُكَ بِقُدْرَتِكَ، وَأَسْأَلُكَ مِنْ فَضْلِكَ العَظِيمِ، فَإِنَّكَ تَقْدِرُ وَلاَ أَقْدِرُ، وَتَعْلَمُ وَلاَ أَعْلَمُ، وَأَنْتَ عَلَّامُ الغُيُوبِ، اللَّهُمَّ إِنْ كُنْتَ تَعْلَمُ أَنَّ هَذَا الأَمْرَ خَيْرٌ لِي فِي دِينِي وَمَعَاشِي وَعَاقِبَةِ أَمْرِي – أَوْ قَالَ عَاجِلِ أَمْرِي وَآجِلِهِ – فَاقْدُرْهُ لِي وَيَسِّرْهُ لِي، ثُمَّ بَارِكْ لِي فِيهِ، وَإِنْ كُنْتَ تَعْلَمُ أَنَّ هَذَا الأَمْرَ شَرٌّ لِي فِي دِينِي وَمَعَاشِي وَعَاقِبَةِ أَمْرِي – أَوْ قَالَ فِي عَاجِلِ أَمْرِي وَآجِلِهِ – فَاصْرِفْهُ عَنِّي وَاصْرِفْنِي عَنْهُ، وَاقْدُرْ لِي الخَيْرَ حَيْثُ كَانَ، ثُمَّ أَرْضِنِي ” قَالَ: «وَيُسَمِّي حَاجَتَهُ»

‘O Allaah, I seek Your counsel by Your knowledge and by Your power I seek strength and I ask You from Your immense favour, for verily You are able while I am not and verily You know while I do not and You are the Knower of the unseen. O Allaah, if You know this affair -and here he mentions his need- to be good for me in relation to my religion, my life, and end, then decree and facilitate it for me, and bless me with it, and if You know this affair to be ill for me towards my religion, my life, and end, then remove it from me and remove me from it , and decree for me what is good wherever it be and make me satisfied with such.’

Jinn

The Qur’an and Sunnah indicate that the jinn exist, and that there is a purpose for their existence in this life, which is to worship Allah (swt) alone, with no partner or associate. Allah (swt) says:

وَمَا خَلَقْتُ الْجِنَّ وَالإنْسَ إِلا لِيَعْبُدُونِ

“And I (Allah) created not the jinn and mankind except that they should worship Me (Alone). (51:56)

يَا مَعْشَرَ الْجِنِّ وَالإنْسِ أَلَمْ يَأْتِكُمْ رُسُلٌ مِنْكُمْ يَقُصُّونَ عَلَيْكُمْ آيَاتِي وَيُنْذِرُونَكُمْ لِقَاءَ يَوْمِكُمْ هَذَا قَالُوا شَهِدْنَا عَلَى أَنْفُسِنَا وَغَرَّتْهُمُ الْحَيَاةُ الدُّنْيَا وَشَهِدُوا عَلَى أَنْفُسِهِمْ أَنَّهُمْ كَانُوا كَافِرِينَ

“O you assembly of jinn and mankind! ‘Did not there come to you the Messengers from amongst you, reciting unto you My verses and warning you of the Meeting of this Day of yours’? They will say, ‘We bear witness against ourselves’. It was the life of this world that deceived them. And they will bear witness against themselves that they were disbelievers”. (6:130)

The world of the jinn is an independent and separate world, with its own distinct nature and features that are hidden from the world of humans. Jinns and humans have some things in common, such as the possession of understanding and the choice between the way of good and the way of evil. The word jinn comes from an Arabic root meaning “hidden from sight”. Allah (swt) says:

يَا بَنِي آدَمَ لا يَفْتِنَنَّكُمُ الشَّيْطَانُ كَمَا أَخْرَجَ أَبَوَيْكُمْ مِنَ الْجَنَّةِ يَنْزِعُ عَنْهُمَا لِبَاسَهُمَا لِيُرِيَهُمَا سَوْآتِهِمَا إِنَّهُ يَرَاكُمْ هُوَ وَقَبِيلُهُ مِنْ حَيْثُ لا تَرَوْنَهُمْ إِنَّا جَعَلْنَا الشَّيَاطِينَ أَوْلِيَاءَ لِلَّذِينَ لا يُؤْمِنُونَ

“O children of Adam! Let not Shaitan (Satan) deceive you, as he got your parents [Adam and Hawwa’ (Eve)] out of Paradise, stripping them of their raiment’s, to show them their private parts. Verily, he and Qabiluhu (his soldiers from the jinn or his tribe) see you from where you cannot see them. Verily, We made the Shayatin (devils) Auliya’ (protectors and helpers) for those who believe not”. (7:27)

وَالْجَانَّ خَلَقْنَاهُ مِنْ قَبْلُ مِنْ نَارِ السَّمُومِ

“And the jinn, We created aforetime from the smokeless flame of fire”. (15:27)

وَخَلَقَ الْجَانَّ مِنْ مَارِجٍ مِنْ نَارٍ

“And the jinn He created from a smokeless flame of fire”. (55:15)

According to a hadith narrated by A’isha radhiallahu anhaa, the Prophet (saw) said: “The angels were created from light, the jinn were created from fire, and Adam (as) was created from that which has been described to you”. (Reported by Muslim, 5314)

TYPES OF JINN

Allah (swt) has created different types of jinn. Among them are some who can take on different forms, such as dogs and snakes; some who are like flying winds with wings; and some can travel and rest. Sayyidna Abu Tha’labah al-Khushani (ra) said: “The messenger of Allah (saw) said: The jinn are of three types: a type that has wings, and they fly through the air; a type that looks like snakes and dogs; and a type that stops for a rest then resumes its journey”. (Reported by at-Tahhawi in Mushkil al-Aathar, 4/95, and by al-Tabarani in al-Kabeer, 22/214. with a saheeh isnad)

THEIR POWERS

Allah (swt) has given the jinn powers that he has not given to humans. Allah (swt) has told us about some of their powers, such as the ability to move and travel quickly. An ‘ifreet from among the jinn guaranteed to the Prophet Sulayman (as) that he would bring the throne of the Queen of Yemen to Jerusalem in a moment faster than that needed for a man to get up from where he is sitting. Allah (swt) says:

قَالَ عِفْريتٌ مِنَ الْجِنِّ أَنَا آتِيكَ بِهِ قَبْلَ أَنْ تَقُومَ مِنْ مَقَامِكَ وَإِنِّي عَلَيْهِ لَقَوِيٌّ أَمِينٌ

“An ‘Ifrit (strong one) from the jinn said: ‘I will bring it to you before you rise from your place (council). And verily, I am indeed strong and trustworthy for such work’.” (27:39)

قَالَ الَّذِي عِنْدَهُ عِلْمٌ مِنَ الْكِتَابِ أَنَا آتِيكَ بِهِ قَبْلَ أَنْ يَرْتَدَّ إِلَيْكَ طَرْفُكَ فَلَمَّا رَآهُ مُسْتَقِرًّا عِنْدَهُ قَالَ هَذَا مِنْ فَضْلِ رَبِّي لِيَبْلُوَنِي أَأَشْكُرُ أَمْ أَكْفُرُ وَمَنْ شَكَرَ فَإِنَّمَا يَشْكُرُ لِنَفْسِهِ وَمَنْ كَفَرَ فَإِنَّ رَبِّي غَنِيٌّ كَرِيمٌ

“One with whom was knowledge of the Scripture said: ‘I will bring it to you within the twinkling of an eye!’ Then when he [Sulaiman (Solomon)] saw it placed before him, he said; ‘This is by the Grace of my Lord – to test me whether I am grateful or ungrateful! And whoever is grateful, truly, his gratitude is for (the good of) his own self; and whoever is ungrateful, (he is ungrateful only for the loss of his own self). Certainly my Lord is Rich (Free of all needs), Bountiful’.” (27:40)

THE FOOD AND DRINK OF THE JINN

The jinn eat and drink. Sayyidna Ibn Mas’ood (ra) said: “The Messenger of Allah (saw) said: ‘Someone from among the jinn called me, and I went with them and recited Qur’an for them’. He took us and showed us the traces of where they had been and the traces of their fires. They asked him for food and he said, ‘You can have every bone on which the name of Allah (swt) has been mentioned that comes into your possession, as meat, and all of the droppings as Allah (swt) revealed to His Prophet (saw) the words’;

قُلْ أُوحِيَ إِلَيَّ أَنَّهُ اسْتَمَعَ نَفَرٌ مِنَ الْجِنِّ فَقَالُوا إِنَّا سَمِعْنَا قُرْآنًا عَجَبًا

“Say (O Muhammad (saw)): ‘It has been revealed to me that a group (from three to ten in number) of jinn listened (to this Qur’an)’. They said; ‘Verily, we have heard a wonderful Recitation (this Qur’an)’!” (72:1) (reported by al-Bukhari, 731)

THEIR RECKONING ON THE DAY OF RESURRECTION

The jinn will be called to account on the day of Resurrection. Mujahid (Rahmatullahi alayh) said, concerning the ayah:

وَجَعَلُوا بَيْنَهُ وَبَيْنَ الْجِنَّةِ نَسَبًا وَلَقَدْ عَلِمَتِ الْجِنَّةُ إِنَّهُمْ لَمُحْضَرُونَ

“And they have invented a kinship between Him and the jinn, but the jinn know well that they have indeed to appear (before Him) (i.e. they will be called to account)”. (37:158) Sahih al-Bukhari, Bab Dhikr al- Jinn wa Thawabihim wa ‘Iqabihim.

PROTECTION FROM THE HARM OF THE JINN

Because the jinn can see us while we cannot see them, the Prophet (saw) taught us many ways to protect ourselves from their harm, such as seeking refuge with Allah (swt) from the accursed Shaytan, reciting Surah Al-Falaq and An-Nas (the last two Surahs of the Qur’an), and reciting the words taught by Allah (swt) in the Qur’an:

وَقُلْ رَبِّ أَعُوذُ بِكَ مِنْ هَمَزَاتِ الشَّيَاطِينِ

“And say: ‘My Lord! I seek refuge with You from the whisperings (suggestions) of the Shayatin (devils)”. (23:97)

وَأَعُوذُ بِكَ رَبِّ أَنْ يَحْضُرُونِ

“And I seek refuge with You, My Lord! Lest they should come near me”. (23:98)

Saying Bismillah (in the Name of Allah (swt)) before entering one’s home, before eating or drinking, and before having intercourse will also keep the Shaytan from entering the house or partaking with a person in his food, drink and sexual activity. Similarly, mentioning the name of Allah (swt) before entering the toilet or taking off ones clothes will prevent the jinn from seeing a person’s ‘awrah or harming him, as the Prophet (saw) said, “To put a barrier that will prevent the jinn from seeing the ‘awrah of the sons of Adam (as), let any one of you say ‘Bismillah’ when entering the toilet”. (Reported by al-Tirmidhi, 551; Saheeh al-Jami’, 3611)

Strength of faith and religion in general will also prevent the jinn from harming a person, so much so that if they were to fight, the one who has faith would win. Sayyidna Abdullah ibn Mas’ood (ra) said: “A man from among the Companions (ra) of Muhammad (saw) met a man from among the jinn. They wrestled, and the human knocked down the jinn. The human said to him, ‘You look small and skinny to me, and your forearms look like the front paws of a dog. Do all the jinns look like this, or only you?’ He said, ‘No, by Allah, among them I am strong, but let us wrestle again, and if you defeat me I will teach you something that will do you good’. The human said, ‘Fine’. He said, ‘Recite, Ayat al-Kursi’:

اللَّهُ لا إِلَهَ إِلا هُوَ الْحَيُّ الْقَيُّومُ لا تَأْخُذُهُ سِنَةٌ وَلا نَوْمٌ لَهُ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الأرْضِ مَنْ ذَا الَّذِي يَشْفَعُ عِنْدَهُ إِلا بِإِذْنِهِ يَعْلَمُ مَا بَيْنَ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَمَا خَلْفَهُمْ وَلا يُحِيطُونَ بِشَيْءٍ مِنْ عِلْمِهِ إِلا بِمَا شَاءَ وَسِعَ كُرْسِيُّهُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأرْضَ وَلا يَئُودُهُ حِفْظُهُمَا وَهُوَ الْعَلِيُّ الْعَظِيمُ

“Allah! La ilaha illa Huwa (none has the right to be worshipped but He), Al-Hayyul-Qayyum (the Ever Living, the One Who sustains and protects all that exists). Neither slumber nor sleep overtakes Him. To Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on earth. Who is he that can intercede with Him except with His permission? He knows what happens to them (His creatures) in this world, and what will happen to them in the Hereafter. And they will never compass anything of His Knowledge except that He wills. His Kursi extends over the heavens and the earth, and He feels no fatigue in guarding and preserving them. And He is the Most High, the Most Great. (This Verse 2:255 is called Ayat-ul-Kursi)

The human said, ‘Fine’. He said, ‘You will never recite this in your house but the Shaytan will come out of it’!”

Salah in Quran

1. Establishing Salah Develops Taqwa (Fear and Awareness of Allah)
“This is the Book in which there is no doubt, a guidance for those who have taqwa; who believe in the unseen, and who establish Salah, and spend out of what we have provided for them” (2: 2-3)
2. Salah Is the Sign of a Believer
“The believers, men and women, are protecting friends of one another; they enjoin good and forbid evil, and they establish Salah, and give Zakah, and obey Allah and His Messenger. Allah will have His Mercy on them, and surely, Allah is All-Mighty, All-Wise.” (9: 71)

3. Establishing Salah Leads to Allah’s Eternal Blessings
“So whatever you have been given is but (a passing) enjoyment for this worldly life, but that which is with Allah is better and more lasting for those who believe and put their trust in their Lord. And those who avoid the great sins and lewdness, and when they are angry, they forgive. And those who answer the Call of their Lord, and perform the Salah, and who conduct their affairs by mutual consultation, and who spend of what We have bestowed on them.” (42:36-38)

4. Those Who Pray Shall Have Nothing to Fear on the Day of Judgment
“Truly, those who believe and do righteous deeds, and perform Salah, and give Zakah, they will have their reward with their Lord. On them shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve.” (2:277)

5. Remain in Allah’s remembrance after prayer
“When have finished performing the Salah, remember Allah standing, sitting, and reclining, but when you are free from danger, perform the Salah. Surely, Salah is enjoined on the believers at
fixed times.” (4:103)

6. Command to Pray with Congregation
“And establish Salah and give Zakah, and bow down (in worship) along with those who bow down (in worship)” (2:43)

7. Special Command Regarding Punctuality of Prayer
“Guard strictly the Salah, especially the middle Salah. And stand before Allah with obedience.” (2:238)

8. Allah’s Help Comes Through Salah
“Seek help through patience and Salah; truly it is extremely difficult except for the humble true believers.” (2:45)

“Oh you who believe! Seek help through patience and Salah. Truly, Allah is with those who are patient.” (2:153)

9. Special Emphasis on Friday Prayer
“Oh you who believe! When the call is made for the Salah on Friday, come to the remembrance of Allah, and leave off business. That is better for you, if you only knew! And when the Salah has ended, you may disperse through the land, and seek the Bounty of Allah, and remember Allah much so that you may be successful.” (62:09-10)

10. Shaytaan Tries His Best in Finding Ways to Take You Away from Salah
“Shaytaan desires only to excite enmity and hatred between you with intoxicants and gambling, and hinder you from the remembrance of Allah, and from Salah. So will you then not abstain
(from these evils)?” (5:91)

11. Prayer Protects Against Evils
“Recite that which has been revealed to you of the Book, and perform Salah. Verily, Salah prevents from lewdness and evils. And indeed, the remembrance of Allah (by you) is greatest. And
Allah knows what you do.” (29:45)

12. Friendship Should Be with Those Who Pray
“Indeed, your protecting friend (Wali) is none other than Allah, His Messenger, and the Believers who establish Salah, and give Zakat, and bow down (in prayer). (5: 55)

13. Allah’s Special Order to Women
“And stay in your houses, and do not display yourselves like that of the times of ignorance, and perform Salah, and give Zakah, and obey Allah and His Messenger. Allah wishes only to remove uncleanness from you, Oh people of the House, and to purify you with a thorough purification.” (33:33)

14. Hypocrites Are Lazy in Salah
“Verily, the hypocrites seek to deceive Allah, but it is He who deceives them; When they stand up for Salah, they stand with laziness, only to be seen by men; and they do not remember Allah but a little.” (4:142)

15. Laziness in Prayers Leads to Rejection of Sadaqa
“And nothing prevents their Sadaqa from being accepted from them, except that they disbelieve in Allah and in His Messenger, and that they do not come to Salah except in a lazy manner, and that they do not give Sadaqa except unwillingly.” (9:54)

16. Leaving Salah Leads to Shirk
“(And remain always) turning to Him (only), and be fearful and dutiful towards Him, and perform Salah and be not of those who commit Shirk.” (30: 31)

17. Previous Nations Were Corrupted when Salah Was Left
“Then, there came after them a generation who gave up Salah and followed lusts; so they will be thrown in Hell.” (19: 59)

What is Islam ?

The word Islam means voluntary “Submission” or “Surrender” to the Will of God. It derives from the root word “salam,” meaning peace.

In the Quran, God defines that the only purpose for which He created mankind is to Worship Him. Islam recognizes that humankind has free choice in whether to obey or disobey God, but ultimately we will be held accountable to God in the next life for the choices that we make in this life.

God sent Prophets to teach mankind how to worship Him; starting with Adam, including Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus and the last of the messengers, Muhammad (peace be upon them all). The Islamic position is that all of these prophets came with the same message, that there is no deity worthy of worship except the One True God, known in Arabic as Allah.

Islam recognizes the close relationship between the body and soul. Whereas the body originates from the earth and has a defined period of life on this earth, the soul originates from God and does not die. Islam encourages the individual to focus on keeping the soul healthy, through the remembrance, obedience and worship of God. There should be a correct balance in strengthening the soul and not over-indulging with the pleasures of the body. Islam is a natural way of life that encourages one to give due attention to their relationship with God and His creation. Islam teaches that it is through the doing of good deeds and seeking the pleasure of God that souls find true happiness and peace. It is in this context that the word Islam derives from the root word “salam,” or peace.

Who are Muslims ?

A Muslim believes in the following 6 articles of Faith

1.Belief in Allah, the Only God Worthy of Worship

A Muslim believes in ONE GOD, Supreme and Eternal, Infinite and Mighty, Merciful and Compassionate, Creator and Provider. God has no father or mother, no son or daughter. None is equal to Him. He is God of all humankind, not of a special tribe or race.

God is High and Supreme but He is very near to the pious thoughtful believers; He answers their prayers and helps them. He loves the people who love Him and forgives their sins. He gives them peace, happiness, knowledge and success. God is the Loving and the Provider, the Generous, and the Benevolent, the Rich and the Independent, the Forgiving and the Clement, the Patient and the Appreciative, the Unique and the Protector, the Judge and the Peace. God’s attributes are mentioned in the Quran.

God creates in humans the mind to understand, the soul and conscience to be good and righteous, the feelings and sentiments to be kind and humane. If we try to count His favors upon us, we cannot, because they are countless. In return for all the great favors and mercy, God does not need anything from us, because He is Needless and Independent. God asks us to know Him, to love Him and to enforce His law for our benefit and our own good.

2. Belief in Messengers and Prophets of God

A Muslim believes in all the Messengers and Prophets of God without any discrimination. All messengers were mortals, human beings, endowed with Divine revelations and appointed by God to teach mankind. The Holy Quran mentions the names of 25 messengers and prophets and states that there are others. These include Adam, the first Prophet, and include Noah, Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Moses, Jesus and Muhammad, the last of the Prophets (peace be upon them all). The key message brought by all Prophets was the same; to believe in One God and not to associate partners with Him, to stay away from sins and to lead a life devoted to earning God’s pleasure.

3. Revelations and the Quran

A Muslim believes in all scriptures and revelations of God, as they were complete and in their original versions. Muslims believe in the original scriptures that were given to previous messengers; for example David received the Zabur (Psalms), Moses the Torah and Jesus the Injeel (Gospel). However, the previous scriptures do not exist today in the original form in which they were revealed.

The Quran is the last testament in the series of divine revelations from God, and Muslims recite and turn to for guidance in all aspects of their life. It comprises the unaltered and direct words of God, revealed through the Angel Gabriel, to the final Prophet, Muhammad (pbuh) some 1400 years ago. The Quran is unique because it is the only revealed book that exists today in the precise form and content in which it was originally revealed. The Quran is unrivalled in its recording and preservation. The astonishing fact about this scripture is that it has remained completely unchanged over the past fourteen centuries, a fact that is attested to by both non-Muslim and Muslim scholars alike. There are no versions of the Quran and every copy in the world remains identical, word for word in its original language Arabic. Muslims to this day continue to emphasize the importance of memorizing the Quran word by word, as a whole or in part, recognizing that it is the Speech of God and not a book written by Muhammad (pbuh) himself.

4. The Angels

Angels are a creation of God. They are purely spiritual and splendid beings that require no food or drink or sleep. They have no physical desires or material needs. Like other creations of God, Angels spend their time worshiping God. In contrast to human beings, Angels do not have free Will – they can only obey God and do not have the ability to disobey Him. Each Angel is charged with a certain duty. Angels cannot be seen by the naked eyes.

5.The Day of Judgment

A Muslim believes in the Day of the Judgment. This world as we know it will come to an end, and the dead will rise to stand for their final and fair trial. On that day, all men and women from Adam to the last person will be resurrected from the state of death. Everything we do, say, make, intend and think are accounted for and kept in accurate records. They are brought up on the Day of Judgment.

One who believes in life after death is not expected to disobey God. They will be ever-conscious that God is watching all their actions and the angels are recording them.

People with good records will be generously rewarded and warmly welcomed to Paradise. People with bad records will be fairly punished and cast into Hell. The real nature of Heaven and Hell are known to Allah only, but they are described by Allah in familiar terms in the Quran.

If some good deeds are seen not to get full appreciation and credit in this life, they will receive full compensation and be widely acknowledged on the Day of Judgment. If some people who commit sins, neglect God and indulge in immoral activities seem superficially successful and prosperous in this life, absolute justice will be done to them on the Day of Judgment. The time of the Day of Judgment is known by God alone.

6. Predestination

A Muslim believes in the ultimate Knowledge and Power of God to plan and execute His plans. Allah is Wise, Just, and Loving, and whatever He does must have a good motive, although we may fail sometimes to understand it fully. The believer should have strong faith in God, recognizing that their own knowledge is limited and their thinking is based on individual consideration. In contrast, the Knowledge of God is limitless and He plans on a universal basis. Humans should think, plan and make sound choices and then put their trust in God. If things happen as they want they should praise God. If things do not happen as they want they should still praise God, recognizing that He knows best what is good for the affairs of mankind.

Holy Mary & Jesus (pbuh) in the Quran

There are many questions that come to mind when the name Jesus is mentioned. Some people say he was a prophet, others call him a god, while others say he was a very wise man. But whatever your idea is, one thing remains certain: he was not your ordinary man. So if there is something special about him, why all the confusion?

Just who was Jesus anyway?

His Origin

Jesus lived about 2,000 years ago in ancient Palestine when the Roman Empire was at its zenith. He was not conceived in the usual way, but was implanted in the womb of a young woman named Mary. God simply commanded, Be and he was. In this sense, he was a word of God and a special sign for humanity. In fact, he was the last in a long line of religious guides sent to the Jews.

Mary, The Blessed

Mary was a righteous woman. Her mother dedicated her to Gods service even before she was born. As a child, she lived a life marked by health and righteousness, which others pointed to in admiration. She was raised by the wise Zechariah, who instilled in her, a beautiful sense of faith in God. When she had become a young woman, Mary sought to purify herself further before her Lord. Knowing that the hustle of life in the towns was distracting, she withdrew from her people to a sanctuary in the East. There she could meditate in seclusion and peace. Suddenly, on a day that seemed no different from the rest, an angel of God visited her, disguised in the likeness of a human. Afraid of so strange a sight, Mary prayed for protection, but the strange being reassured her and declared that he was a messenger from the Lord to announce the glad-tidings of a faultless son. Mary, astounded, asked how this was possible seeing that no man had ever touched her. But the angel replied, Your Lord says, it is easy for Me . But when she felt the little child within her, she fled her sanctuary out of fear of what her family would do or say when they heard the news. Mary, however, was not to face hardship. When in her despair she cried out to God for oblivion, a voice soothed her and she found shade and a cool spring. Under a date-palm in the warmth of late summer, she made her dwelling and there bore the child unlike any other in human history.

Shortly thereafter, Mary returned to her community carrying the child who was to be called Messiah, Jesus, and son of Mary. When her people saw her with the baby in her arms they couldnt believe their eyes, let alone accept her word. They refused to believe when she told of an angel who came and told her she was chosen above all other women to carry this burden. They accused her of infidelity and implied that she had ruined the family name. Mary, being overwhelmed, simply motioned towards the child meekly.

The Miracles

Now the child was the product of a miracle and consequently, miraculous things began to happen. In defense of his mother and of the truth, the infant Jesus spoke saying, I am a servant of God. He has given me Scripture and has made me a Prophet. He has blessed me wherever I may be and has made prayer and charity my duty as long as I live. This put the detractors to rest.

Throughout his youth, Jesus remained dutiful to his mother and developed quickly in intelligence, wisdom, and piety. He dumfounded the learned and was greatly admired by those around him who appreciated his talents. He claimed to be a sign of God and a Messenger to the Israelites.

His people had strayed from the spirit of truth and placed their trust in legalism, thereby burying their sense of mercy beneath dusty scrolls and rituals. Finally, when he came of age, Jesus began to travel and preach throughout the land of Palestine about a return to the truth of the old revelations and a rejection of all that man had added. In his task he was supported by the spirit of truth, the angel Gabriel.

The Gospel, His Message

He taught that love and mercy overcome hate and anger and that only a true and sincere faith in the Creator and obedience to His will can bring a person salvation in this life as well as in the next. To reinforce his message, which was called Injeel (Good News), God granted him the performance of miracles. He healed the sick, uplifted the distressed and revived the dead. All these things he did with the permission of God, never taking credit for them himself.

He led a simple and pious life. Soon he attracted an inner-circle of devoted followers who listened to his teachings with fervor and humility. These disciples, among them Peter, Barnabas, and John helped him carry the message of Divine Love to the people. They helped him in his mission.

A Test Of Wills

But no righteous man of God is without trial and tribulation. As the message of Jesus began to gain wider acceptance, a small clique of hypocrites and evil men began to plot against him. They were the priests and leaders of the Jews whose position and wealth depended upon their place as the sole interpreters of religion to the masses. They pursued him and his followers and eventually captured him. Though they abused him, he never renounced his faith in the one God. So in their anger they plotted to crucify him on a Roman cross. But Jesus slipped from their grip at the last moment, and all the while they thought they had succeeded. They were sure they had killed him but God answered Jesus prayer and saved him from their schemes. Confusion overtook the mob and they might have killed the man who betrayed Jesus instead. In any case, Jesus escaped from their grasp. Then God removed Jesus from this world into another dimension, to a place with Him, not to return until a later time.

With their teacher gone, the devoted followers of Jesus tried to maintain the purity and simplicity of his teachings. But they were soon besieged and overtaken by a flood of Roman and Greek influences, which eventually so buried and distorted the message of Jesus that only a little of its truth now remains. Strange doctrines of Jesus being a man-god, of God dying, of saint worship and of God being made up of different parts came into vogue and were accepted by many of those who took the name Christians centuries after Jesus.

Conclusion

The only records that have come down to us concerning Jesus are some sketchy biographical material, poorly researched and compiled, which can in no way be representative of the full and accurate Message of Jesus, the Son of Mary. The time of the final and incorruptible Message was not yet at hand. It would be left to the last prophet of God, Muhammad (peace be upon him), to clarify the truth from mans additions and deletions.

Jesus taught the same eternal message that was taught by all the Messengers of God, from Adam, on through Noah, Abraham, Moses and ending with the mission of Gods last Guidepost to humanity, Muhammad (peace be on them all), whose coming was foretold by Jesus himself.

Every nation and every people, from the Aztecs to the Greeks, have received a Prophet or a Messenger from God. Jesus was the last of a series of Messengers sent to the Israelites, but they consistently strayed from the path of surrender to God. Each of the many Messengers spoke a different language and followed varied customs. Yet the core faith taught by each was the same: surrender your imperfect and fickle will to the perfect will of the Power that is greater than you. You will then find the peace and freedom that only the Creator of all things can provide. Then you must do what is right and good to your fellow creatures. This way of life is called Islam (surrender to God and find peace).

By Yahiya Emerick

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